k 1976: beginning of the youth rebellion k 400: number of casualties, death toll

k 1980s: end of the rebellion

k two languages: Afrikaans, English k two groups of people: Blacks, Whites

In June 1976 the schoolchildren protested against the supremacy of English / the state’s

decision to introduce Afrikaans in all African schools / that they must be taught Afrikaans,

which was regarded as the language of the oppressor. Many young people were inspired by

the ideas of Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement. This system, called “gutter

education”, was designed to train African people to accept a subservient role in society.

“Blacks are not dutsbins” is one of the demonstrators’ slogans. The peaceful demonstration

turned to riots and many children died. The riots extended to the rest of South Africa and

many people died claiming their rights. The riots lasted until the mid-1980s.



I.1. k “she”: Grace k “they”: schoolchildren


3.They are in their teens, maybe their early teens. Clues: “schoolchildren” (l. 3) and the little

girl who was killed next to Grace was “about eight years old” (l. 18).

4.Blacks have the right to have a good education. + Blacks are not servants. + Blacks should

have the same education as Whites.









– “the police saw the schoolchildren marching,

and then the trouble started.” (l. 9)

– “aimed their guns and began to shoot with real

bullets, killing whoever was in the way.” (l. 11)

– “The police shot tear gas too” (l. 13)

– “More police came in great steel tanks, and

more in helicopters, firing from above.” (l. 15)


– “had marched” (l. 2)

– “were protesting” (l. 3)

– carried a banner (l. 6)

– “People were screaming,

bleeding, falling.” (l. 15)



6. marching / protesting (l. 2-3)



Demonstrators’ reaction





(l. 23)

“People became fighting mad,

throwing stones at the police,

burning down schools and

government offices.” (l. 20)


– “Smoke and flames were everywhere. ”

(l. 22)

– “hundreds were dead.” (l. 23)

– “Hundreds were hurt and hundreds were

arrested.” (l. 24)



8. “Dumi was one of those arrested.” (l. 25)

9. determined • rebellious • resolute “he would go on fighting even if they killed him.” (l. 27)

11. 1. From 1976 to the mid-eighties young people demonstrated against the government decision

to teach them Afrikaans instead of English. They complained about this unfair decision. But

the police crushed the riots. As a consequence, the number of casualties was high, many

people were killed, arrested or deported.

2. Grace is the narrator. She witnessed the scene. Schoolchildren protested against the

supremacy of English. They demanded equal rights, a better education, that they should

be treated on an equal footing, that they should not be discriminated against. The police

resorted to arms and violence. Police trucks invaded the area and started shooting at

the demonstrators to crush the riot. It looks as if it were a war. The whole scene gives an

impression of violence. Violence is deliberate, shocking. It was all the more shocking since

the young girl was killed, although she was harmless / helpless / weak / defenceless /

powerless. The police seem heartless / merciless / pitiless / ruthless. It was so awful /

appalling / dreadful, that Blacks retaliated / hit back. They did not have any sophisticated

equipment. It was David versus Goliath. Violence spread to the rest of the country. The death

toll was quite high. Dumi was arrested, was ill-treated, but he came back home determined

to keep fighting against an unfair system; he had become more radical. The goal of the whole

text is to make the reader side with the victims, innocent civilians. The narrator wants to

arouse pity and compassion for the children, to make us feel indignant and outraged. The goal

is also to condemn the government’s attitude during the riots, to show that Blacks were the

victims of sheer violence and hatred.



page 102

La détermination du nom : a, the, « l’article zéro » = Ø

a. Le premier groupe souligné (tea) renvoie à une généralité et à un indénombrable. Le deuxième groupe (a national drink) renvoie à un élément parmi d’autres et à un dénombrable.

b. Le groupe souligné (Chips with vinegar) renvoie à un ensemble et à un dénombrable.

c. Le groupe souligné (a bridge) renvoie à un élément parmi d’autres et à un dénombrable.

On emploie a / an pour désigner un élément parmi d’autres.

Pour parler de quelque chose « en général », on emploie l’article zéro (Ø) si le nom est un dénombrable au pluriel, ou si le nom est un indénombrable au singulier. On emploie a devant les consonnes, sauf « h » non prononcé comme dans hour. (Autres mots commençant par un h non prononcé : heir, honour, honest et leurs composés.)

Devant unique, on utilise l’article indéfini a, parce que, dans sa forme orale, unique commence par une consonne .

Explication plus détaillée : le mot unique se transcrit . Même si /j/semble au son« i », c’est une consonne, que l’on trouve également au début du mot yes, ou, en français,au début du mot yeux ou encore dans le mot pied (prononciation différente de celle de pillé). On a également cette dualité « consonne / voyelle » avec les sons proches du « ou » :consonne dans won  et dans le mot français oui , voyelle dans good  et dans le mot français oubli

On emploie an devant les autres mots commençant par une voyelle.

Remarque générale sur le choix entre a et an, et sur le choix entre \Di…\ et \DE\ pour the : ce qui détermine ce choix, c’est la prononciation (la forme orale), et non la forme écrite ; il arrive qu’un mot commence dans sa forme écrite par une voyelle mais dans sa forme orale par une consonne (exemples : unique, one k a unique situation, a one-eyed man), et inversement (hour \aÁEr\).

Sherlock Holmes est détective. À la différence du français, on emploie l’article indéfini (a / an) lorsqu’on indique la catégorie à laquelle appartient quelque chose ou quelqu’un, donc devant les noms de métier.

a. Pour les premier et deuxième groupes de mots soulignés (the name + the bell), on emploie the, car ces mots sont définis par ce qui suit. Pour le troisième groupe de mots soulignés (the Houses of Parliament), on emploie the, car le mot fait référence à un élément connu de tous.

b. Pour le premier groupe souligné (the chime), on emploie the, car le mot est défini par ce qui suit. Pour le deuxième groupe de mots soulignés (the sound), on emploie the, car le mot est défini par le contexte. Pour le troisième groupe de mots soulignés (the New Year), on emploie the, car le mot fait référence à un élément connu de tous.

c. Pour le premier groupe de mots soulignés (the clock), on emploie the, car le mot est défini par le contexte. Idem pour le deuxième groupe de mots soulignés (the time).

d. Pour le groupe de mots the Millenium Bridge, on emploie the, car le mot fait référence à un élément particulier et bien défini qui est connu de tous.

Les noms de pays au singulier s’emploient sans article. Les noms de pays au pluriel sont précédés de l’article défini the.


3. Scotland’s capital • The heart of Edinburgh • the castle • the kings of Ø Scotland • Ø centuries • a busy cultural life • an International festival • Ø Musicians • Ø actors • Ø singers • the world • Ø Australia • Ø Canada • Ø Japan • the United States • the Netherlands • the city • the evening • the opera house • the theatres • the concert halls • the cafés • the pubs • Ø small groups • Ø poetry

4. a. Brick Lane is a famous street in Great Britain. Immigrants coming from Bangladesh and India settled there.

b. Monica Ali is a novelist, she wrote a novel about that area.

c. Londoners go to Brick Lane to eat a curry / have a curry.


page 114 MODAUX et "équivalents"

Obligation : a et d Interdiction : c Absence d’obligation : b

k Ces modaux sont invariables et sont suivis de la base verbale du verbe.

Obligation : have to Interdiction : is forbidden to Absence d’obligation : don’t have to

a. une opinion personnelle de l’énonciateur b. une simple constatation

Passé : a. had to (obligation) b. were forbidden to (interdiction) c. didn’t have to (absence


Avenir : d. will have to (obligation)

Obligation : have to Absence d’obligation : not have to Interdiction : be forbidden to







can (sing)

can (clap)


were never able to

could (wear)


will be able to

will be allowed to



> Practice p. 115


2. 1 must 2 can’t 3 needn’t 4 will be able to 5 can 6 must


3. a. 1 had to 2 had to 3 couldn’t

b. 1 had to 2 could 3 could 4 didn’t have to 5 had to 6 could






I. & Lisez le récit. I1 est interrompu 4 fois : A, B, C, D. A chaque interruption, trois suites possibles vous sont suggérées.

Classez les trois propositions en inscrivant dans les cases les chiffres 1, 2 ou 3 :


· est sûrement la suite du conte =


· pourrait convenir pour la suite du conte =


· ne convient pas du tout pour la suite du  conte =


Emu et Thundering Gecko sont deux animaux mythologiques personnifiés.        ( *tadpoles : des têtards )

Once upon a time, Emu and Thundering Gecko lived together at the rocky place of Wilili. Early each morning Emu went collecting tadpoles* down the river. One day, she heard the noise of Little Boy who was picking fruit with his parents. Little Boy was playing and running about, some distance from his parents.




After some time he could not see them but did not worry.                        X (1)

He helped them do the housework.                                                               £(3)

As he was busy shooting kiwis, he got lost.                                               £(2)


But Emu was watching Little Boy and she decided to take him away with her. So she pretended that she was his mother.






And he ate some kiwis                                                                                     £(3)

But he did not want to go with her as he did not know her.                     £(2)

And he went with her because she was so friendly.                                  X


When Emu and Little Boy arrived at the camp, Thundering Gecko was surprised and furious: He said to her:




"What is Little Boy doing here? You stole him, didn't you?"                   X

"Great! We'll have a little friend at home now!"                                           £(3)

"Are you sure you did the right thing?"                                                       £(2)


The next day, Thundering Gecko wanted to return the boy secretly to his family.




He asked Emu about what they should do.                                                  £(3)

He showed him how to escape.                                                                      £(2)

He waited for Emu to go and then took the boy back.                                X


Relisez maintenant l'ensemble du texte et verifiez si votre choix n° 1 de l'exercice 15 correspond ou non aux phrases en caractères gras. Indiquez ensuite votre réponse en cochant la case correspondante.

( *tadpoles : des tetards / *a hole: un trou / *a rope :une corde )

Once upon a time, Emu and Thundering Gecko lived at the rocky place of Wilili. Early each morning, Emu went collecting tadpoles* down the river. One day, she heard the noise of Little Boy who was picking fruit with his parents. Little Boy was playing and running about, some distance from his parents. He was a little behind but he thought: "They are not far away. Everything is all right. "

But Emu was watching Little Boy and she decided to take him away with her. So she pretended that she was his mother. She was so nice to him that she persuaded him to leave his parents.

When Emu and Little Boy arrived at the camp, Thundering Gecko was surprised and furious. He said to her: "You must give him back. The boy is not yours."

The next day, Thundering Gecko wanted to return the boy secretly to his family. He started digging a hole* and he made a rope*.


&19. Dans l'extrait suivant, les mots en caractères gras font référence à des personnages différents, à un lieu et à de la nourriture. Classez ces mots dans le tableau selon qu'ils designent le personnage principal, des personnages secondaires , le lieu ou la nourriture.

Early next morning Emu started out again. She left home with a basket to catch tadpoles for the children. They were so hungry and always wanted more of them! The female bird was never back at Wilili before late in the afternoon. The little ones were always happy to see their mother back at the camp with a basket full of nice things.






the children







The female bird

The little ones

the camp

nice things

their mother













& 26. Lisez l'extrait suivant.

   Emu searched the ground carefully for marks. Then she looked up and noticed that Thundering Gecko had attached a rope to a gigantic tree.

   "Good Heavens! That's how you helped the boy to escape", she said, looking at him furiously.

   After some argument, Emu left the camp quickly to find Little Boy.

   "He must be hiding in the desert ", she thought.


&27 & 28- Lisez l'extrait suivant. Repérez les mots dérivés (exemple : careful) et les mots composés (exemple : lunchtime

[After crossing the bush, Emu finally reached Darari, Little Boy's village.]

   The angry-looking bird spoke before the village people:

   "You must give Little Boy back to me. He is mine. I found him. How unfair it is to keep him away from me !"

   Thus, to their great disappointment, she obliged the helpless villagers to return Little Boy to her. And off she went. By sunset the long-legged bird was back at her camp site.


Quel sens donnez-vous aux mots suivants ? Cochez la case qui correspond à votre reponse.

1. village people :


2. unfair :


a. le village des gens


a. sans beauté, laid


b. les gens du village


b. aux cheveux foncés


c. le village peuplé


c. injuste


d. le village du peuple


d. infidèle




them = Lewis and Clark

we = the Nez Perce

they = Chief Joseph's people

my = Chief Joseph's

he = the white man

them = all men

it = the earth








1. Four: Sacagawea • Toussaint Charbonneau • Lewis • Clark “the Shoshone Indians from the Rocky Mountains” (l. 1) • “Indians from the Plains” (l. 2)

2. Idaho: northwest of the USA, south of the Canadian border • North Dakota: a border state with Canada

3. k 1788: Sacagawea’s date of birth k 12: age when she was kidnapped k 16: age when she started the expedition k 1804: Lewis and Clark hired her husband for the expedition k 6: she was 6 months pregnant

4. The expedition was viewed as peaceful because they had Sacagawea and her child with them. She helped the explorers communicate with Native Americans. Friendly / peaceful: because she was a woman, and she was carrying her baby with her. Quotes: “because Sacagawea had her infant son with her”, “no woman ever accompanies a war party” (l. 7)

5. Sacagawea was a Shoshone Indian born in about 1788, kidnapped at the age of 12 and forced to marry a French trapper. She was part of the Lewis and Clark expedition because she could establish contact with the native tribes. She took her baby son on the journey.



6. to Lewis and Clark

7. Sacagawea’s asset / advantage: She spoke American and two Native American languages. Role in the expedition: interpreter, translator, guide   Why?: She was born and raised in the Shoshone tribe, lived with the Minitari and married a Canadian trapper.

8. “foraged for roots, nuts and berries” (l. 13) • “taught Lewis and Clark the medicinal value of native plants” (l. 15)

9. clever • information about something that is written down

10. his admiration for her: “she is described as a smart and helpful woman” (l. 16) • “she saved records and instruments from being lost” (l. 17)

11. 1 As a young girl, more exactly at the age of twelve, she was kidnapped by another Indian tribe from the Plains. 2 She was eventually sold to be married to a French Canadian fur trapper. 3 She accompanied him on the Lewis and Clark expedition. She helped the Corps of Discovery through unknown areas, especially the Rockies. 4 She was considered a valuable help in the expedition. She was a guide, a translator, and negotiator for them because she knew the land, the languages, customs and tribes. She was largely responsible for the success of the whole expedition.